Toyota
Ford Kuga
 Service Manual
Paint - General Information » Paintwork Defects and Damage
Paint damage caused by environmental factors

  • Bee droppings
  • Bird droppings
  • Insects
  • Tree resin and sap
  • Aphid secretions
  • Tar spots
  • Cement, plaster and slaked lime
  • Rust film/deposits from industrial fallout
  • Battery acid
  • Brake fluid

In all the cases of paint damage described below, if the damage is irreversible a new paint finish must be applied.

Paint damage cause by bee droppings

Bee droppings can be recognized on a paint surface through its yellow or brown color and sausage or drop-like shape with a diameter of 3-4 mm.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • In combination with heat and high air humidity, bee droppings leave discolorations and cause paint decomposition.
  • The paint can be destroyed down to the filler.

Paint damage cause by bee droppings

Repair of damage:

  • If the damage is light, perform a polishing repair.

Paint damage caused by bird droppings

Bird dropping damage appears most often as matt, etched topcoat areas of various sizes. If left on the vehicle for a long time, crack formation and etching down to the filler will occur.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • Bird droppings are particularly harmful in combination with heat and moisture. The urea (white part) has a very high salt content and is very aggressive.
  • The intensity of the damage varies depending on the type, quantity, contact time and extent.
  • Cracks, etching, marks up to dissolution of the top coat are the results.

Paint damage caused by bird droppings

Repair of damage:

  • If the damage is light, perform a polishing repair.

Paint damage caused by insects

At insect impact locations on the hood, roof and bumper, small etched or etched through paint marks with partially visible spots of filler.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • The top coat layer is destroyed in a short time by surface swelling and etching.
  • Colliding insects stick to the paint surface. In combination with moisture and heat, because of the resulting acids the insect bodies sink into the paint top coat.
  • The corrosion is G, C, U or O shaped and is only a few millimeters thick.

Paint damage caused by insects

Repair of damage:

  • Wash the vehicle, treat the affected area with insect remover. Clean the paint surface several times.
  • Protect with hard wax.

Paint damage caused by tree resin or sap

Small yellow-brown marks or drops on the horizontal parts of the vehicle. The drops melt in sunlight. Resin damage only occurs in the warm summer months.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • Because of their chemical composition, tree resins combine with or adhere very well to paint top coats and cause them to swell. The higher the temperature, the more intensive is the chemical bonding between the resin and the paint topcoat surface.

Paint damage caused by tree resin or sap

Repair of damage:

  • Soak several times using a cloth saturated with a petrol & paraffin mixture.

NOTE: After successful cleaning the top coat must be preserved.

  • Swellings can be removed by warming.

Paint damage from aphid secretions

Small, round, matt marks about 1 mm diameter and etching with small islands down to the filler.

Fresh aphid excrement looks like small drops of honey.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • Aphids produce a mixture of starch, leaf acid and sugar from sap in leaves. Under the effects of warming and moisture this can turn into alcohol.
  • The round shape of the damage and the island of intact paint are typical.

Paint damage from aphid secretions

Repair of damage:

  • Remove the excrement as soon as possible.
  • Small single matt locations without etching can be repaired using a polishing repair.

Paint damage caused by tar spots

Yellow or dark marks.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • Firmly stuck spots of tar which lead to discoloration of the surface. In some cases penetration through the clear lacquer into the top coat.

Paint damage caused by tar spots

Repair of damage:

  • Clean the paint surface with tar remover and polish.

Paint damage caused by cement, plaster and slaked lime

Damage appears as whitish matt marks on the top coat.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • Corrosive alkaline compounds interacting with moisture.

Paint damage caused by cement, plaster and slaked lime

Repair of damage:

  • Wash immediately if the contamination is fresh
  • If the contamination has dried on, dissolve and neutralise it with vinegar, then thoroughly wash off with water and rinse.
  • Rectify mild damage using a polishing repair.

Rust film/deposits from industrial fallout

Small round marks, about 1 mm in size, in all shades from black, grey, blue to reddish, on the horizontal surfaces of the vehicle.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • Deposits from oil fired systems and industrial plant, especially at high humidities and inversion weather conditions, cause damage to the paint top coat.
  • As the activity time increases so called rust halos form. They spread as long as the deposits corrode.
  • Industrial fallout containing iron will no longer be removable after a few days!

Rust film/deposits from industrial fallout

Repair of damage:

  • Remove the dust using an industrial fallout remover and thoroughly wash.
  • Polish the paint surface.

NOTE: Never try to remove the particles of industrial fallout by polishing or rubbing!

  • Use cleaning dough.

Damage caused by battery acid.

Splashes of battery acid caused by carelessly topping up the battery.

WARNING: Batteries contain sulphuric acid. When working near the battery, or where there is battery acid on the vehicle body, protect the skin and eyes from contact with the acid. If battery acid contacts the skin or enters the eyes, flush the affected area immediately with water (flush for at least 15 minutes) and call a doctor without delay. If acid is swallowed, call a doctor immediately. Failure to follow these instructions may result in personal injury.

NOTE: High temperatures accelerate the attack on the top coat. At 50C the top coat layer breaks down after about 15 minutes!

Cause/damage pattern:

  • Etching of the paint layer to decomposition of the paint finish.

Damage caused by battery acid.

Repair of damage:

  • Flush the acid splashes with plenty of water and neutralize with car washing liquid.
  • If the contact time of the acid was short, perform a polishing repair.

Paint damage caused by brake fluid

Careless handling of brake fluid. The glycols contained in the fluid cause swellings.

Cause/damage pattern:

  • The temperature and contact time are critical.

    Splashes lead to loss of shine and lightening of color.

Paint damage caused by brake fluid

Repair of damage:

  • Flush immediately with plenty of water.
  • The swellings can often be made to recede completely by treatment with the radiant heater or in the paint drying oven at max. 60C for about 1 hour.
    More about «Paintwork Defects and Damage»:

    Diagnosis and Damage Assessment

    Paint damage guide

    Paint damage caused by environmental factors

    Mechanical damage

    Damage due to corrosion

    Damage caused by faults in treatment

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