Toyota
Ford Kuga
 Service Manual
Suspension System - General Information

DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING

Symptom Possible Sources Action
Steering wheel off center Vehicle attitude incorrect (front or rear is high or low).
  • Vehicles without load levelling shock absorbers, CHECK for abnormal loading, spring sag or non-standard springs.
  • Vehicles with load levelling shock absorbers, GO to Pinpoint Test C.
Steering gear or linkage worn or damaged. CHECK the steering system.

REFER to: Steering System (211-00 Steering System - General Information, Diagnosis and Testing).

Suspension lower arm ball joint CARRY OUT the Ball Joint Inspection Component Test in this procedure.
Incorrect wheel alignment. ADJUST the wheel alignment.

REFER to: Front Toe Adjustment (204-00 Suspension System - General Information, General Procedures) / Rear Toe Adjustment (204-00 Suspension System - General Information, General Procedures).

Rough ride Front strut and spring assemblies.
  • CARRY OUT the Strut or Shock Absorber Testing component test in this procedure.
  • CHECK and INSTALL new suspension components as necessary.

    REFER to: Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Disassembly and Assembly).

Front or rear stabilizer bar connecting links or bushings CHECK and INSTALL new suspension components as necessary. REFER to: Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Disassembly and Assembly), Rear Stabilizer Bar (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).
Front suspension lower arm bushings. INSTALL a new lower arm.

REFER to: Lower Arm (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

Rear suspension arm bushings CHECK and INSTALL new components as necessary.

REFER to: Rear Stabilizer Bar Bushing (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).

Rear shock absorbers.
  • CARRY OUT the Strut or Shock Absorber Testing component test in this procedure.
  • CHECK and INSTALL new suspension components as necessary.
Excessive noise Front strut and spring assembly or rear shock absorber and spring upper mounting bolts or nuts loose or broken. GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Shock absorbers leaking. GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Shock absorbers performance incorrect GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Stabilizer bar components GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Strut and spring assembly and springs. GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Springs moving on springs upper or lower seats. GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Suspension bushings. GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Lower arm ball joint. GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Worn front wheel bearings GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Wheels and tires. GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Incorrect tire wear Front or rear suspension damage. CHECK and INSTALL new suspension components as necessary.
Incorrect wheel alignment ADJUST the wheel alignment.

REFER to: Front Toe Adjustment (204-00 Suspension System - General Information, General Procedures) / Rear Toe Adjustment (204-00 Suspension System - General Information, General Procedures).

Vibration Damaged or worn front wheel bearings. CHECK the front wheel bearings.
Wheels and tires. CHECK the tires. BALANCE or INSTALL new tires as necessary.
Steering gear or linkage worn or damaged. CHECK the steering system.

REFER to: Steering System (211-00 Steering System - General Information, Diagnosis and Testing).

Front strut and spring assemblies.
  • CARRY OUT the Strut or Shock Absorber Testing component test in this procedure.
  • CHECK and INSTALL new suspension components as necessary.

    REFER to: Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

Damaged front suspension lower arm(s). CHECK and INSTALL new suspension components as necessary.

REFER to: Lower Arm (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

Vehicle lean Load-levelling shock absorbers GO to Pinpoint Test C.

Pinpoint Tests

PINPOINT TEST A : DRIFT LEFT OR RIGHT

TEST CONDITIONS DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
WARNING: To avoid personal injury due to the loss of vehicle control, the inspection should be carried out by two people to maintain safe driving conditions. Adequate grip should always be maintained on the steering wheel. Failure to follow these instructions may result in personal injury.
NOTE: The following conditions must be met when evaluating the vehicle.
NOTE: The tire swapping procedures are for bi-directional rotating tires only.
A1: SWAP THE FRONT WHEEL AND TIRE ASSEMBLIES
 
  1. Raise and support the vehicle. REFER to: (100- 02 Jacking and Lifting)

Jacking (Description and Operation), Lifting (Description and Operation).

  • Swap the front left-hand wheel and tire assembly with the front right-hand wheel and tire assembly.
  • Road test the vehicle.

Does the vehicle drift?

  • Yes GO to A2.
  • No The concern has been corrected.
A2: SWAP THE REAR WHEEL AND TIRE ASSEMBLIES
 
  1. Raise and support the vehicle. REFER to: (100- 02 Jacking and Lifting)

Jacking (Description and Operation), Lifting (Description and Operation).

  • Swap the rear left-hand wheel and tire assembly with the rear right-hand wheel and tire assembly.
  • Road test the vehicle.

Does the vehicle drift?

  • Yes GO to A3.
  • No The concern has been corrected.
A3: SWAP THE LEFT-HAND WHEEL AND TIRE ASSEMBLIES
 
  1. Raise and support the vehicle. REFER to: (100- 02 Jacking and Lifting)

Jacking (Description and Operation), Lifting (Description and Operation).

  • Swap the front left-hand wheel and tire assembly with the rear left-hand wheel and tire assembly.
  • Road test the vehicle.

Does the vehicle drift?

  • Yes GO to A4.
  • No The concern has been corrected.
A4: SWAP THE RIGHT-HAND WHEEL AND TIRE ASSEMBLIES
 
  1. Raise and support the vehicle. REFER to: (100- 02 Jacking and Lifting)

Jacking (Description and Operation), Lifting (Description and Operation).

  • Swap the front right-hand wheel and tire assembly with the rear right-hand wheel and tire assembly.
  • Road test the vehicle.

Does the vehicle drift?

  • Yes GO to A5.
  • No The concern has been corrected.
A5: SWAP THE FRONT LEFT-HAND WHEEL AND TIRE ASSEMBLY
 
  1. Raise and support the vehicle. REFER to: (100- 02 Jacking and Lifting)

Jacking (Description and Operation), Lifting (Description and Operation).

  • Swap the front left-hand wheel and tire assembly with the rear right-hand wheel and tire assembly.
  • Road test the vehicle.

Does the vehicle drift?

Yes GO to A6.

No The concern has been corrected.

A6: SWAP THE FRONT RIGHT-HAND WHEEL AND TIRE ASSEMBLY
 
  1. Raise and support the vehicle. REFER to: (100- 02 Jacking and Lifting)

Jacking (Description and Operation), Lifting (Description and Operation).

  • Swap the front right-hand wheel and tire assembly with the rear left-hand wheel and tire assembly.
  • Road test the vehicle.

Does the vehicle drift?

  • Yes GO to A7.
  • No The concern has been corrected.
A7: INSTALL NEW TIRES
NOTE: Install new tires only once.
 
  1. Install new tires to the four road wheels. TEST the system for normal operation.
  • Does the vehicle drift?
  • Yes Verify possible sources, refer to the Symptom Chart.
  • No The concern has been corrected.
PINPOINT TEST B : EXCESSIVE NOISE
TEST CONDITIONS DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
B1: INSPECT ALL STRUTANDSPRINGASSEMBLYANDSHOCKABSORBERMOUNTINGBOLTS AND NUTS
 
  1. Inspect the strut and spring assembly and shock absorber mounting bolts and nuts.
  • Are the mounting bolts or nuts loose or broken?

Yes TIGHTEN or INSTALL new suspension mounting bolts.

REFER to: Specifications (204-01 Front Suspension, Specifications).

No GO to B2.

B2: INSPECT THE STRUT AND SPRING ASSEMBLIES AND SHOCK ABSORBERS FOR LEAKS
  NOTE: Make sure that the oil is not from another source.
  1. Inspect the strut and spring assemblies and shock absorbers for signs of oil weepage or leaks. Refer to weepage and leakage conditions in the Strut or Shock Absorber Testing component test in this procedure.

Are the struts or shock absorbers leaking?

  • Yes INSTALL new struts or shock absorbers as necessary.

    REFER to: Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

  • No GO to B3.
B3: INSPECT THE SPRINGS AND STABILIZER BAR(S)
 
  1. Inspect the springs and stabilizer bar(s) for damage.

Are the springs or stabilizer bar(s) damaged?

  • Yes INSTALL new springs or stabilzer bar(s).

    REFER to:

Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation), Front Stabilizer Bar (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation), Rear Stabilizer Bar Link (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).

  • No GO to B4.

    2008.50

B4: INSPECT THE SUSPENSION BUSHINGS
 
  1. Inspect the suspension bushings for excessive wear or damage.
  • Are the bushings worn or damaged?

Yes INSTALL new components as necessary.

REFER to:

Lower Arm (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation), Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation), Front Stabilizer Bar (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation), Rear Stabilizer Bar Link (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).

No GO to B5.

B5: INSPECT THE SUSPENSIONS LOWER ARM BALL JOINTS
 
  1. Carry out the Ball Joint Inspection component test in this procedure.

Is the lower arm ball joint or gaiter damaged?

  • Yes INSTALL new lower arm.

    REFER to: Lower Arm (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

    TEST the system for normal operation.

  • No GO to B6.
B6: INSPECT THE WHEEL BEARINGS
 
  1. Check the wheel bearings.

Are the wheel bearings damaged?

  • Yes INSTALL a new wheel hub(s).

    REFER to: Wheel Hub (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

  • No GO to B7.
B7: INSPECT THE WHEEL AND TIRES
 
  1. Inspect the tires for uneven wear.

Is there uneven wear?

  • Yes REFER to the symptom chart.
  • No GO to B8.
B8: INSPECT THE STRUTANDSPRINGASSEMBLYANDREARSUSPENSION SPRING INTERFACE
 
  1. Loosen the strut and spring assemblies and shock absorbers top and bottom mounting bolts and nuts. Tighten the mounting bolts and nuts.

    REFER to:

Specifications (204-01 Front Suspension, Specifications), Specifications (204-02 Rear Suspension, Specifications).

Is the concern still evident?

  • Yes GO to B9.
  • No Vehicle condition corrected.
B9: INSPECT THE STRUT AND SPRING ASSEMBLIES AND SHOCK ABSORBER COMPONENTS
 
  1. Check that the spring is correctly located on the spring seat and has not moved.
  2. Disassemble the strut and spring and assembly and inspect the individual components.

    REFER to: Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

  3. Inspect the shock absorber top mount for wear or damage.
  4. Carry out the Strut or Shock Absorber Testing component test in this procedure.

Are any of the strut and spring assemblies or shock absorber components damaged?

  • Yes INSTALL new components as necessary.

    REFER to: Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation), Spring (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).

  • No REINSTALL the strut and spring assemblies or shock absorbers. GO to C1.
PINPOINT TEST C : VEHICLE LEAN
TEST CONDITIONS DETAILS/RESULTS/ACTIONS
C1: VEHICLE LEAN
 
  1. Detach the load levelling shock absorbers from the wheel knuckles.

Does the vehicle lean?

  • Yes Install new rear springs.

    REFER to: Spring (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).

    TEST the system for normal operation.

  • No CARRY OUT the Load-Levelling Shock Absorber Component Test in this section.

Component Tests

Raise and support the vehicle. REFER to: (100-02 Jacking and Lifting) Jacking (Description and Operation), Lifting (Description and Operation).

Ball Joint Inspection

1. Firmly grasp the outer end of the suspension lower arm and try to move it up and down, watching and feeling for any movement. Free movement will usually be accompanied by an audible "click''. There should be no free movement.

2. If there is any free movement install a new lower arm.

REFER to: Lower Arm (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

3. If a new lower arm is installed it will be necessary to check and adjust the front wheel alignment.

REFER to: Front Toe Adjustment (204-00 Suspension System - General Information, General Procedures) / Rear Toe Adjustment (204-00 Suspension System - General Information, General Procedures).

Strut or Shock Absorber Inspection

NOTE: Inspect the struts or shock absorber for signs of oil weepage or leaks. Make sure that the oil is not from another source.

Weepage:

  • deposits a thin film of oil on the strut and spring assembly or shock absorber.
  • is normally noticed due to a collection of dust on the strut and spring assembly or shock absorber.
  • occurs during the normal running-in period of 4800 - 8050 km. After this period no new signs of oil should be visible.
  • does not require new struts or shock absorbers to be installed.

Leakage:

  • covers the entire strut and spring assembly or shock absorber with oil.
  • will drip oil onto the surrounding suspension components.
  • requires new struts or shock absorbers to be installed.

Strut or Shock Absorber Testing

NOTE: Struts or shock absorbers must be tested in the vertical position.

1. Remove both strut and spring assemblies or shock absorbers. The piston rods should extend.

  • Disassemble the strut and spring assemblies.

    REFER to: Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

2. Compress the piston rods. Both piston rods should offer the same resistance when compressing.

3. Compress and release the piston rods. The piston rods should extent equally.

4. Compress and pull the piston rod in the vertical position. Feel if the resistance force at the point of direction change-over is perceptible without a lag. If a lag is perceptible it is an indication of damper valve damage and new struts or shock absorbers must be installed. REFER to: Front Strut and Spring Assembly (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation), Spring (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).

Load-Levelling Shock Absorber

1. With the vehicle unladen, measure and note the dimensions between the base of the wheel rim and the top of the rear fender on both sides.

  • The measurements on both sides should be approximately equal

3. NOTE: Due to the internal ratchet mechanism of the suspension components, the height of the rear of the vehicle should rise during the road test.

With a load of 4 average size adults and a 100 kg weight, drive the vehicle for 3 km on a road of normal condition.

4. With a load of 4 average size adults and a 100 kg weight, measure and note the dimensions between the base of the wheel rim and the top of the rear fender on both sides.

5. If the dimensions on both sides are no longer approximately equal, install new load levelling shock absorbers.

REFER to: Spring (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).

6. NOTE: Due to the internal ratchet mechanism of the suspension components, the height of the rear of the vehicle should rise during the road test.

If the dimensions are approximately equal, unload the vehicle and drive the vehicle for 3 km on a road of normal condition.

7. With the vehicle unladen, measure and note the dimensions between the base of the wheel rim and the top of the rear fender on both sides.

Check the final dimensions with the original dimensions taken in the unladen condition.

8. If the final dimensions do not approximately equal the original dimensions, install new load levelling shock absorbers.

REFER to: Spring (204-02 Rear Suspension, Removal and Installation).

9. If the final dimensions approximately equal the original dimensions, verify the customer concern.

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Ford Kuga Service Manual / Suspension System - General Information

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