Toyota
Ford Kuga
 Service Manual
Brake System - General Information » Brake System
Road Test

Carry out a road test to compare actual vehicle braking performance with the performance standards expected by the driver. The ability of the test driver to make valid comparisons and detect performance deficiencies will depend on experience.

The driver should have a thorough knowledge of the brake system operation and accepted general performance guidelines to make good comparisons and detect performance concerns.

An experienced technician will always establish a route that will be used for all brake diagnosis road tests. The road selected will be reasonably smooth and level. Gravel or bumpy roads are not suitable because the surface does not allow the tires to grip the road equally. Crowned roads should be avoided because of the large amount of weight shifted to the low set of wheels on this type of road. Once the route is established and consistently used, the road surface variable can be eliminated from the test results.

Before a road test, get a complete description of the customer concerns or suspected condition.

From the description, the technician will be able to match possible causes with symptoms. Certain components will be identified as possible sources while others will be eliminated by the evidence.

More importantly, the customer description can reveal unsafe conditions which should be checked or corrected before a road test. The description will also help form the basic approach to the road test by narrowing the concern to specific components, vehicle speed or conditions.

Begin the road test with a general brake performance check. Using the description of the concern, test the brakes at different vehicle speeds using both light and heavy pedal pressure.

Determine if the concern is in the front or rear braking system. First use the foot brake and then the parking brake. If the condition (i.e. pull, vibration, pulsation) occurs only on operation of the parking brake, the concern is in the rear brake system. If the condition occurs when the foot brake is depressed, the concern is in the front brake system.

Avoid locking the brakes and sliding the tires. This condition will not indicate brake efficiency. A heavily braked but turning wheel will stop the vehicle in a shorter distance than locked wheels.

If the concern becomes evident during this check, make sure it fits the description given before the road test. If the concern is not evident, attempt to duplicate the condition using the information from the description.

If a concern exists, use the Brake System Symptom Chart in order to isolate it to a specific sub-system and condition description. From this description, a list of possible sources can be used to further narrow the cause to a specific component or condition.

Symptom Chart

Symptom Possible Sources Action
Brakes pull or drift Worn or damaged brake shoes or brake pads and linings. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Abnormal wear or distortion of front brake disc. INSTALL a new front brake disc.

REFER to: Brake Caliper (206- 03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Incorrect rear brake adjustment. ADJUST the parking brake cable.

REFER to: Parking Brake Cable Adjustment (206-05 Parking Brake and Actuation, General Procedures).

Incorrect wheel alignment adjustment. ADJUST the wheel alignment.

REFER to: (204-00 Suspension System - General Information) Front Toe Adjustment (General Procedures), Rear Toe Adjustment (General Procedures).

Incorrect wheel bearing preload adjustment. ADJUST or INSTALL a new wheel bearing.

REFER to: Front Wheel Bearing (204-01 Front Suspension, Removal and Installation).

Grease or fluid on the brake shoes or brake pads; glazed linings. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Stuck or seized wheel cylinders or brake calipers. INSTALL a new wheel cylinder or brake caliper.

REFER to: Brake Caliper (206- 04 Rear Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

The red brake warning indicator  is always on Low brake fluid level. FILL the reservoir. CHECK the brake and clutch system for leaks including brake fluid in the brake booster.
Leaking brake master cylinder primary piston cup. INSTALL a new brake master cylinder.

REFER to: Brake Master Cylinder - 2.5L Duratec (147kW/200PS) - VI5 (206-06 Hydraulic Brake Actuation, Removal and Installation).

Parking brake control not fully released. FREE UP and ADJUST the parking brake cable.

REFER to: Parking Brake Cable Adjustment (206-05 Parking Brake and Actuation, General Procedures).

INSTALL new components as necessary.

Malfunctioning anti-lock braking system (ABS). REFER to: Anti-Lock Control (206-09 Anti-Lock Control, Diagnosis and Testing).
Shorted indicator circuit. REFER to: Instrument Cluster (413-01 Instrument Cluster, Diagnosis and Testing).
Vibration when the brakes are applied Grease or fluid on the brake shoes or brake pads; glazed linings. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Worn or damaged brake shoes or brake pads. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Loose caliper mounting bolt(s) TIGHTEN the caliper mounting bolt(s).
Excessive brake disc thickness - variation or brake disc runout.  
Wheels and tires. CHECK the tires. BALANCE or INSTALL new tires as necessary.

REFER to: Wheels and Tires (204-04 Wheels and Tires, Diagnosis and Testing).

Loose or missing wheel hub bolts. TIGHTEN or INSTALL new wheel hub bolts as necessary.
Worn or damaged brake drums or brake discs. CARRY OUT a brake disc runout check.
Pedal goes down fast Low brake fluid level. FILL the reservoir. CHECK the brake and clutch system for leaks including brake fluid in the brake booster.
Leak in the hydraulic system REPAIR the leak. CHECK the entire hydraulic system. FILL and BLEED the brake system.

REFER to: (206-00 Brake System - General Information) Brake System Bleeding (General Procedures), Brake System Pressure Bleeding (General Procedures), Component Bleeding (General Procedures).

Air in the system. CHECK for leaks. BLEED the brake system. REFER to: (206- 00 Brake System - General Information) Brake System Bleeding (General Procedures), Brake System Pressure Bleeding (General Procedures), Component Bleeding (General Procedures).
Brake disc "brake knock back" (Brake pads push the brake caliper piston back into the brake caliper. Caused by excessive brake disc lateral runout or loose wheel bearings.) CARRY OUT a brake disc runout check.
Worn brake shoes or brake pads. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Worn brake master cylinder piston cups or scored cylinder bore. GO to Pinpoint Test A.
Pedal eases down slowly Air in the system. BLEED the brake system.

REFER to: Brake System Pressure Bleeding (206-00 Brake System - General Information, General Procedures).

REFER to: (206-00 Brake System - General Information) Brake System Bleeding (General Procedures), Component Bleeding (General Procedures).

  • Malfunctioning brake master cylinder.
  • Low engine vacuum (stationary).
GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Pedal is low or feels spongy Worn brake shoes or brake pads. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Air in the system. CHECK for leaks. BLEED the brake system. REFER to: (206- 00 Brake System - General Information) Brake System Bleeding (General Procedures), Brake System Pressure Bleeding (General Procedures), Component Bleeding (General Procedures).
Brake lockup during light brake pedal force Glazed or worn brake shoes or brake pads. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

  • Brake booster.
  • Low engine vacuum.
GO to Pinpoint Test C.
Excessive or erratic pedal travel Worn brake shoes or brake pads. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Wheel bearings CARRY OUT a brake disc runout check.
Brake drag Incorrectly adjusted parking brake or brake pedal switch ADJUST the parking brake cable or switch REFER to: Parking Brake Cable Adjustment (206-05 Parking Brake and Actuation, General Procedures).
Brake booster. REFER to brake booster operation check in this procedure.
Seized wheel cylinder or brake caliper. INSTALL a new wheel cylinder or brake caliper.

REFER to: Brake Caliper (206- 03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Seized brake caliper slide pins. INSTALL a new brake caliper.

REFER to: Brake Caliper (206- 03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Seized parking brake cables. INSTALL new parking brake cables.

REFER to: Parking Brake Cable Adjustment (206-05 Parking Brake and Actuation, General Procedures).

Parking brake not fully released. Check the parking brake leaver position and make sure there are no obstructions.
Brake hose incorrectly fitted. Check all brake hose(s) for correct fitment.

REFER to: Rear Brake Flexible Hose (206-04 Rear Disc Brake, Removal and Installation) / Front Brake Flexible Hose (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Excessive brake pedal effort Worn or contaminated brake shoes or brake pads. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Malfunctioning vacuum pump (diesel). INSTALL a new brake vacuum pump.
Disconnected or damaged brake booster vacuum pipe. CONNECT or INSTALL a new brake booster vacuum pipe as necessary.
Brake booster. GO to Pinpoint Test D.
Brake noise Worn or damaged brake shoes or brake pads. INSTALL new brake shoes or brake pads.

REFER to: Brake Pads (206-03 Front Disc Brake, Removal and Installation).

Brake booster. GO to Pinpoint Test E.
Slow or incomplete brake pedal return
  • Brake booster.
  • Seized brake pedal pivot.
GO to Pinpoint Test F.
    More about «Brake System»:

    Inspection and Verification

    Road Test

    Pinpoint Tests

    Component Tests

    Brake System Check

    Brake Booster Functional Test

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