Ford Kuga
 Service Manual
Paint - General Information » Tools and Equipment for Paint Repairs
Hand and machine sanding tools

Sanding is used to prepare a surface for application of a paint layer, enabling it to adhere well. Sanding materials have a great influence on the quality of a repair paint finish. The correct sanding medium must therefore be chosen for every material.

During sanding, material is mechanically removed from a surface.

In the paint shop, carborundum or silicon carbide abrasive on a substrate of paper or cloth are the most common sanding materials used.

Carborundum is a very hard mineral consisting mostly of aluminum oxide. During use carborundum becomes blunt and wears away.

Silicon carbide has a very high degree of hardness, but is more brittle than carborundum. When silicon carbide is used, the mineral grains break. New long and pointed profiles are formed.

Use of the correct sanding paper depends on the application, the substrates and the tools used. The following table can be used as a guideline, but the recommendations of the supplier of the auxiliary materials and additive materials must be followed.

Hand and machine sanding tools

Soft Pads are recommended for manual refinishing of contours, curves and difficult to reach areas. On a Soft Pad the abrasive is found on a coarse structured fleece. Because of this, it is very flexible, does not kink and does not slip in the hand. This enables a fine and even finish to be achieved.

Hand and machine sanding tools

Item Description
1 Extraction bores
2 Connection for extraction equipment

Notes on working with sanding tools:

Tools with a rigid backing pad do not adjust to fit the surface. They are used for flat surfaces.

Tools with a flexible backing pad are used for fine sanding of a surface because they adjust to the shape of the surface.

Build up an even working pressure over the sanding surface.

Keep the sanding paper tight on the tool (use self-gripping systems).

Align the extraction holes in the sanding paper with the holes in the tool.

Guide the tool flat over the surface to be worked.

Do not tilt it.

Hand sanding can be carried out dry but also wet.

Wet and dry paper with particle size P 80 to P 1200 is used for this in the paint field.

Ways of sanding

Sanding tools are driven either by electricity or compressed air.

Ways of sanding

Item Description
1 Sanding machine
2 Polishing machine
3 Orbital sander

The disadvantage of electrically driven machines is that their own weight is high compared with pneumatic systems. They also become warm during work. They do not however need any special operating equipment for their energy supply.

Sanding machines are categorized by their type of sanding movement.

Rotational sanders

On these machines the sanding paper turns.


  • Ideal for heavy sanding work.
  • Fast and aggressive sanding possible.


  • Large amount of heat developed
  • Difficulty sanding flat surfaces.


  • Removal of old paint layers.
  • Preparation of panel for stopper.
  • Removal of rust.

Oscillating sander

On these machines the sanding paper oscillates.

The backing pad is rectangular.


  • Large sanding surface.
  • Ideal for large and flat surfaces.


  • Hardly useable on rounded surfaces.
  • Flexible backing pad not possible.
  • Vibrations because of the poor support of the backing pad.


  • Sanding of polyester stopper.
  • Sanding processes on flat surfaces.

Orbital sander

On these machines the sanding paper turns and oscillates.


  • Easy to handle and good sanding power.
  • Minimal heat development.


  • Not suitable for sanding stopper on flat surfaces.
  • Smooth guidance important, otherwise sanding marks will occur.


  • Sanding of paint layers.
  • Well suited for final preparation of a primer.

NOTE: Comply with the manufacturer's recommendations when setting the orbital sander.

On the orbital sander, stroke settings of approx. 3 mm for fine sanding work and approx. 5 - 7 mm for coarse sanding work have been established.

    More about «Tools and Equipment for Paint Repairs»:

    General work equipment

    Filler and spray guns

    Hand and machine sanding tools

    Polishing and finishing tools

    Infrared drying technology

    Air dryers

    Paint mixing system

    Painting cabin

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